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Publication Title : Vaccine-escape Mutations: A Major Challenge for COVID-19 Vaccines
Author(s) : Shuaibu Abdullahi Hudu
Abstract : Background: Viruses are continually evolving as they replicate. Each of these modifications is referred to as a "mutation." A virus that has undergone mutation in one or more nucleotides is called a "variant" of the wild type. Several existing SARS-CoV-2 variants do have the ability to escape immune cell response or antibodies neutralization in some people. This review critically looks at the challenges course by vaccine escaped mutants in the current COVID-19 vaccination programs. Methodology: Search engines of SCOPUS, PubMed, Google Scholar, and the WHO and CDC websites were used for finding resourceful information and journal articles. The search turned up relevant studies published between 2020 and 2022. Results: SARS-CoV-2, a novel coronavirus, was shown to have several variations in different geographical regions, according to scientists. A mutation is responsible for the majority of evolutionary changes in viral genomes. It's caused by insertions or deletions in the genome in some circumstances. The S protein is the immunogenic component of the virus structural protein that is responsible for viral immunity, mutation to this protein have caused large outbreaks in heavily vaccinated populations. Mutations that allow monoclonal antibody escape can be predicted and easily generated in the lab, including a single substitution that confers reduced susceptibility to monoclonal antibodies. Conclusion: Updated versions of current vaccines are being tested, but there is currently hardly any scientific proof that variant-specific vaccines might provide considerably stronger protections. Keywords:Vaccine, escape mutants, SARS-CoV-2, Variants, Mutations
DOI : 10.51658/ABMS.202122.12
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