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Publication Title : Studies on the Activity of the Chloroform Fraction of Balanites aegyptiaca Stem Bark Extract
Author(s) : Chinenye J. Ugwah-Oguejiofor, Oguejiofor M. Ugwah, Emmanuel U. Etuk, Shuaibu O. Bello, Adamu A. Aliero
Abstract : Background: Balanites aegyptiaca L. Delile (Zygophyllaceae) is a perennial tree found mostly in the desert environments. Decoctions of its stem barks are used traditionally in northern Nigeria to treat wounds, ulcers and stomach ailments. Other ethnomedicinal uses include: treatment of malaria, pain and fever. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antiulcer activity of the chloroform stem bark extract of Balanites aegyptiaca in Wistar rats. Materials and methods: Acute toxicity study on the chloroform fraction of the stem bark extract of Balanites aegyptiaca was carried out using the OECD 425 guidelines at a limit dose of 3000 mg/kg. Phytochemical analysis of the fraction was carried out to detect the presence of alkaloids, tannins, flavonoids, steroids, carbohydrates, saponins and glycosides using standard procedures. The antiulcer activity of the fraction was evaluated in ethanol and indomethacin-induced ulcer models in rats. Rats were allotted into five groups (n=5). Group 1 received 10% Tween 20 (1 ml/kg), group 2 received standard drug, omeprazole (20 mg/kg), and groups 3-5 were the extract groups and received 125, 250 and 500 mg/kg, p.o. respectively of the chloroform fraction of Balanites aegyptiaca. The mean ulcer indices were assessed and the percentage ulcer inhibition calculated. Results: At the limit dose of 3000 mg/kg the fraction of Balanites aegyptiaca did not produce any mortality or observable signs of toxicity in the rats. The phytochemical analysis showed the presence of flavonoids, saponins and steroids. The fraction at the doses of 250 and 500 mg/kg caused a significant (p<0.05) reduction in mean ulcer indices in the ethanol and indomethacin-induced ulcer models when compared to the control. Conclusion: Our study showed that the chloroform fraction of the stem bark extract of Balanites aegyptiaca possesses antiulcer activities. Further studies are needed to isolate the active constituents.
DOI : 10.51658/ABMS.202122.5
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