Authors Guide

1 Preparation of Manuscripts
1.1  The manuscripts should be written in plain British English. The typing should be double-spaced using  Times New Roman, font size 12, with the text aligned to the left and pages numbered consecutively beginning with the title page. It is important to leave a margin of at least 25 mm all around on each page. 
2. Submission of Manuscripts
2.1  The manuscripts should be submitted online at https://abms.udusok.org with the main text, tables, and figures all included in a single Microsoft Word file.
2.2  Each manuscript should be accompanied by a cover letter containing complete contact information for the corresponding author and other authors (e-mail address and telephone numbers) and should be sent online to the Editorial office at https://abms.udusok.org .
2.3 Any manuscript received by the journal is assumed to be original, containing no plagiarism, and not to have been previously published or currently under consideration for publication by any other journal. Authors are solely responsible for securing permission to reproduce any previously published figures, tables or data. 
3  Styles
3.1 Nomenclature
3.1.1 For drugs, standard generic names should be used, with brand names provided inside brackets when necessary.
3.1.2  Generic and species names should be in italics, and when mentioned for the first time, they should be written in full along with authorities where applicable.
3.2  Units
3.2.1 Standard International (SI) units should be used: metres and grams and their multiples for height and weight and degree Celsius for temperature.
3.3 Abbreviations
3.3.1  Abbreviations should be standard. Non-standard abbreviations are allowed only when the full term is very long, and it occurs frequently. Within the text, the term should be written in full and its abbreviation provided in parentheses the first time it is mentioned.
3.3.2    All sentences should commence with words or alphabets and not numerals. Numbers 1 to 10 appearing in text should be written out fully in words and not in numerals.
3.4 Footnotes
The use of footnotes should be minimised and only when necessary. They should be numbered consecutively using Arabic numerals.
3.5 Tables and figures
Tables and figures should be provided with precise titles and legends succinctly captured at the top. Tables should be numbered (using Arabic numerals) in the order of their citation inside the text and placed (each table on a separate page) at the end of the manuscript following references.
Figures should be numbered (using Arabic numerals) in the order of their citation in the text and placed (each figure on a separate page) at the end of the manuscript following references.
The same data should not appear in both table and figure nor should it be duplicated in the text. 
4  Structure of Manuscript
The format of Manuscripts should be in the following sequence:
4.1 Title page
The title of the manuscript should be brief (not exceeding 15 words) describing the contents of the paper. The Title Page should contain full names and affiliations of all the authors as well as the name of the corresponding author together with an e-mail address and telephone number. 
4.2 Abstract
The Abstract should be structured into the following sections; background, materials/methods, resukts abd conclusion. The abstract should be both informative and concise (not exceeding 300 words) highlighting the justification and clearly mentioning the aim and the design of the study as well as summarizing the major findings and conclusions. The abstract should be written in full sentences using past tense. Only standard nomenclature should be used and abbreviations or citations of literature are not allowed.
About 3 to 5 key words (for the purpose of indexing) should be listed below the abstract.

 

4.3 Introduction
The Introduction should briefly provide relevant literature that serves as background information and indicates the aim, objectives, hypotheses tested as well as the rationale for conducting the study.
4.4 Materials and Methods
Materials and Methods should be brief but adequate enough to allow the study to be reproduced by other investigators. However, only truly new procedures should be described in detail; previously published original description or modification of procedures should be cited, and important modifications of published procedures should be mentioned briefly. The names of Manufacturers, as well as an affiliation for any individual from whom materials were obtained, should be provided. 
4.5 Results
This section should be presented clearly and precisely. Numerical data should be summarised using measures of central tendency and dispersion as appropriate (e.g., mean ± SD, confidence intervals, etc.). Appropriate statistical tests should be used in analysing numerical data.  Citations, detailed interpretation or speculation should be avoided.
This section may be omitted if the article contains theory only.
4.6 Discussion
The discussion should concisely interpret principal findings in the light of the results of other related published studies. Statements about possible significance and limitations of the study as well as conclusions from the work should be included. The conclusions should be stated in few sentences at the end of the paper.
4.7 Acknowledgements
Acknowledgements of people (who contributed to the work but have not fulfilled the criteria of authorship), grants, funds, etc. should be succinct.
4.8  References
All references should be in conformity with Vancouver referencing style. References should be numbered in Arabic numerals in the consecutive order in whichthey are mentioned in the text, starting with number “1”.
Examples:
For original article:
Yahaya Mohammed, Galadima Bala Gadzama, Sambo Bello Zailani, Aaron Oladipo Aboderin.  Characterization of extended spectrum beta lactamase from clinical isolates of Escherichia coli and Klebsiella species from a teaching hospital in north-eastern, Nigeria. Journal of Clinical Diagnosis and Research 2016; 10(2):7-10. 
For a book:
Buxton LO. Principles of prescription order writing and patient compliance. In: Brunton L Laurence, Chabner A Bruce, Knollmann C Bjorn, eds. Goodman and  Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics. 12th ed. New Delhi: Mc Graw Hill. 2011;1879-89.

4.9 Video Article: Video articles are currently not accepted.

4.10 Tables and Figures

Tables and figures should be included in the main document after the reference list and should be in “.jpg" or “.pdf" formats and should appear in the consecutive order they appear in the text. Tables and figures should not be embedded in the main text document. Color figures or gray-scale images must be at minimum 300 DPI resolution.
Each table must have a title on its top indicating the purpose or content of the table. Place explanatory matter in footnotes, not in the heading. Each figure must have an accompanying descriptive legend defining abbreviations or symbols found in the figure or table. Coloured or coloured photographs of people can be used, but the subjects must be unidentifiable and the subjects must have provided written permission to use the photograph.
5. Manuscript Types
5.1 Original articles
These should describe original and carefully verified findings.  The design and methods of the study should be described in sufficient detail for others to reproduce and verify.  The article should be concise with the length being as short as possible enough to describe and discuss the study clearly. The length of original articles should not exceed five thousand (5,000) words (excluding abstract, references, tables and figure legends).
5.2 Short Communications:
These are suitable for recording the findings of completed small investigations or giving a detailed description of new models or hypotheses, innovative methods, techniques or apparatus. The style of the sections of the article need not be similar to that of regular articles. The Results and Discussion sections should be combined. The length of Short communications should not exceed one thousand (1,000) words and not more than seven references.

5.3 Letter to Editor
This is usually written in response to current article (published in the last issue) of the journal. The letter should not be more five hundred (500) words in length and the number of references should not exceed five. 
5.4 Reviews
Reviews should be concise and contain topics and perspectives of current interest and relevance to basic and medical sciences done by experts in the field that are invited by the Editor in chief.
5.5 Case reports
These are detailed reports of the symptoms, signs, diagnosis, treatment, and follow-up of an individual patient. A case report should not exceed one thousand five hundred (1,500) words with two (2) illustrations and a case summary and not more than ten references.
6. Review Process
All submitted manuscripts are reviewed and evaluated initially by an editor using certain criteria (including originality, clarity of expression, timeliness of the study, appropriateness of the study methods and validity of the data). Then the manuscripts will be sent to experts for peer review. If the reviewer declines, he will be asked to nominate another person he deems capable. Decisions will be made as fast as possible and reviewer’s comments returned to the authors as soon as possible. One of the goals of the journal is to publish submitted manuscripts approximately three months after acceptance.
6.1 Charges
The corresponding author shall pay the sum of thirty four thousand five hundred Naira (N34, 500.00) only as publication charges after the acceptance of an article for publication using the journal’s account.
6.2 Proofs
Galleyproofs will be sent to the corresponding author.  They should be returned within 48 hours of receipt after correction. The corresponding author will receive a copy of the journal free of charge; however, additional copies may be purchased at 75% of the cost if ordered when the proofs are returned.
7. Correspondence
All editorial correspondence should be addressed to the Editor-in Chief, Annals of Basic and Medical Sciences, Faculty of Basic Clinical Sciences, College of Health Sciences, Usmanu Danfodiyo University Sokoto, Nigeria (E mail: annbasmedsci@gmail.com; P.M.B. 2346).