Nutritional Status of Under-five Children in Sokoto, Nigeria
Fatima B. Jiya, Ango U. Mohammad, Isah B. Adamu, Umar M. Tukur, Usman A. Auwal, Bello M. Muhammad, Asma'u Adamu, Khadijat O. Isezuo
Background: Malnutrition is the largest risk factor in the world for disability and premature mortality among young children, especially in developing countries. A myriad of socio-economic, cultural, and environmental factors have been identified to either improve or negatively affect a child's nutritional status. Objectives: To assess the nutritional status of children under-five years of age in Sokoto, Nigeria, and determine the associated factors. Methods: A cross-sectional survey of children aged 6-59 months selected through multistage random sampling. Data was obtained using pretested semi-structured questionnaire and the nutritional indices were determined using WHO anthro v3.2.2. Data was analyzed using SPSS version 25. Results: Subjects comprised a total of 353 children with a mean (±S.D) age of 26.8 ±14.9 months. Majority 214(60.6%) were females. Most 330(93.5%) of the caregivers were married majority 180(51.0%) were of low socio-economic status. Two hundred and two (57.2%) of the under-fives had normal weight for age, 144(40.8%) of them were severely stunted, most 290 (82.2%) of them had normal weight for height, and 199(56.7%) had normal mid upper arm circumference. Mother/caregiver's age (p=0.012), marital status (p= 0.007), and child's immunization status (p=0.015) were associated with weight for age, marital status (p=0.028) was associated with the weight for height/length, Child's age group category (p<0.001), social class (p=0.036), and community setting (p=0.031) were associated with the height for age, Marital status (p=0.025), child's age group category (p<0.001), history of recent illness (p=0.046), and community setting (p<0.001) were associated with the mid-upper arm circumference. Conclusion: Under nutrition was the main form of malnutrition among the under-fives, with severe stunting predominating. The nutritional status were influenced by some maternal or caregivers' socio-demographic factors, as well as inadequate child immunization and treatment of acute illnesses.